## The mathematics of backwards reasoning

Mathematical models allow us to make predictions. To predict a future event, such as the result of a measurement, we must first derive a relationship between the model and measurand. The problem of deducing predictions from a mathematical model is called the forward problem. In contrast, an inverse problem consists of using experimental data to infer the values of the parameters that characterise our mathematical model.

As an example, suppose that you are in a spacecraft orbiting the Moon. As you orbit, you proceed to make measurements of the Moon’s gravitational ﬁeld.

Now, if you knew the distribution of mass inside the moon, then you could predict the values of your measurements by using Newtonian physics, that is, by solving the forward problem. However, you have been assigned the inverse problem: estimating the distribution of mass inside the moon based on your measurements. Since there are many different mass distributions that would yield exactly the same gravitational field (hence, the same set of measurements), the problem has multiple solutions (in fact, infinitely many solutions).

In order to constrain the number of possible solutions, you might attempt to incorporate any relevant a priori information you have available. For example, you would want to only consider solutions in which the density at any point in the Moon is nonnegative. You may also try to account for any uncertainties associated with the measurement process, so they can be accounted for when quantifying the uncertainty in your inferences. But how exactly would you do all this in a coherent and systematic manner?

A simple, yet powerful method, which is applicable to any kind of inverse problem, can be obtained by taking a probabilistic viewpoint. In this approach, we represent our a priori information by a probability distribution.

Informally, we may view the shape of this distribution as quantifying our current state of belief that a given possible solution is true. If we believed that all solutions were equally likely, then we would represent this by a uniform distribution; if we believed a certain range of solutions we more likely than others, then this range of solutions would have a higher concentration of probability mass. To account for the uncertainties in our measurement process, we must consider both the likelihood that our measurement device makes an error and how these errors distributed. If you think about it, this too can be represented by a probability distribution.

Once we have collected our data, we are able to update our prior beliefs in light of the current observations by an application of Bayes’ rule. Note that our updated beliefs do not correspond to a single solution, but a range of possible solutions, represented (again) as a probability distribution. You might exclaim that we are back to where we started. Not quite. Because our updated beliefs have incorporated all the information at hand, the resulting distribution will have a relatively higher probability mass concentrated around the ‘true’ solution. So while we may not have obtained an exact solution, we have effectively converged on a those which are most probable given our observations and prior knowledge.

## Faq for Male strippers for hire in Melbourne

 Can we take photos/video the show/male stripper?
 Not without permission from the individual.  All the male strippers understand you are celebrating an occasion, so please just ask and you will find them most helpful.  Gratuitous sneaky shots will not be tolerated, your performer is within their rights to interrupt the show and leave with full payment.

 Does it matter if the party is inside or outside?
 Wherever you are having your party please ensure adequate space for a show to be performed.  Also please provide a private area for your performer to get changed.  If you are having the party outside please ensure there is somewhere clean, dry and warm for your performer. (Not much of  show if they are cold and soggy)

 Do we have to pay travel? Why?
 We will not compromise on the quality of girls we use and any travel charge is paid in full to the individual performer.  What sort of girl do you want at your party? Travel charges apply to all bookings outside of 30km radius Melbourne CBD. We offer reduced travel charges for off-peak bookings.

 Can we touch the male strippers?
 NO! Performers may allow guiding touching (eg thighs, buttocks, breasts), but is solely at the discretion of the individual.  Waitresses are strictly HANDS OFF.  All guys are there for your entertainment, not to be manhandled or molested. Inappropriate touching or willful behaviour can risk your performer walking out – NO REFUND.  Please ensure all guest are aware of this policy

 Do the guys do “extras”?
 NO NO NO! They are provided for entertainment purposes only.

 Its a mixed crowd, can we still have a XXX show?
 As a general rule, it is not usually appropriate to have a XXX show with men and women present.  Most guys will not do XXX shows at these functions.  We generally recommend a Raunchy strip (to G-string) for these crowds.  Please get in touch if you have a more specific question about this situation

 Can we pick the male strippers we book?
 We always do our best to get you the performer/male stripper you request.  Not all guys do all types of shows, and are subject to availability.  Please choose at least three preferences for each performer. Booking well in advance increases your chances of getting the performer you want.  We cannot guarantee you will get the performer you requested, but we do give priority to securing your preferences.   Remember: if you want a particular girl – be flexible on booking time, if you want a particular time – be flexible on the performer.

 Running late?
 Expect your performer/s to arrive at the booking time +/- 20 minutes.  Any number of things can happen on the night which cause delay.  All performers keep Management informed of any issues with their schedule.  We will notify you by SMS of any changes.   If for some extreme and unforeseen reason, the performer is running later than 30 minutes or can’t make the booking, we will call you to make an alternative arrangement.

 How do we confirm our booking?
 All necessary details will be collected when you first contact us first.  Once your deposit is received and performers booked, we will send an SMS confirming details.  2-5 days before your booking a representative will contact you by phone.  This is to ensure there is no change to venue, times etc.  On the day of your booking we confirm with your booked performers that they are “good to go”.  At this time if there are any problems we will contact you.  At all times we keep you in the loop so you can be assured things will go smoothly.

 Do we have to pay a deposit?
 A deposit is required for all bookings, and may be paid by Credit Card or Direct Bank Deposit.  We do not secure performers until we have received the booking fee/deposit. You will increase the likelihood of getting the performer(s) you want by booking well in advance and paying your deposit as soon as possible. For more info Visit: www.malestripperssydney.com.au